VERBS - Verb Classification

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VERBS - Verb Classification

Post  Vincent Law on Fri Sep 21, 2012 6:12 am

We divide verbs into two broad classifications:

1. Helping Verbs

Imagine that a stranger walks into your room and says:

"I can.
People must.
The Earth will."


Do you understand anything? Has this person communicated anything to you? Probably not! That's because these verbs are helping verbs and have no meaning on their own. They are necessary for the grammatical structure of the sentence, but they do not tell us very much alone. We usually use helping verbs with main verbs. They "help" the main verb. (The sentences in the above examples are therefore incomplete. They need at least a main verb to complete them.) There are only about 15 helping verbs.

2. Main Verbs
Now imagine that the same stranger walks into your room and says:

"I teach.
People eat.
The Earth rotates."

Do you understand something? Has this person communicated something to you? Probably yes! Not a lot, but something. That's because these verbs are main verbs and have meaning on their own. They tell us something. Of course, there are thousands of main verbs.

In the following table we see example sentences with helping verbs and main verbs. Notice that all of these sentences have a main verb. Only some of them have a helping verb.


http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verbs-what_classification.htm
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Re: VERBS - Verb Classification

Post  Vincent Law on Mon Sep 24, 2012 5:57 am

VERBS - Helping Verbs:
Helping verbs are also called "auxiliary verbs".

Helping verbs have no meaning on their own. They are necessary for the grammatical structure of a sentence, but they do not tell us very much alone. We usually use helping verbs with main verbs. They "help" the main verb (which has the real meaning). There are only about 15 helping verbs in English, and we divide them into two basic groups:

Primary helping verbs (3 verbs):
These are the verbs be, do, and have. Note that we can use these three verbs as helping verbs or as main verbs. On this page we talk about them as helping verbs. We use them in the following cases:

be
to make continuous tenses (He is watching TV.)
to make the passive (Small fish are eaten by big fish.)



have
to make perfect tenses (I have finished my homework.)


do
to make negatives (I do not like you.)
to ask questions (Do you want some coffee?)
to show emphasis (I do want you to pass your exam.)
to stand for a main verb in some constructions (He speaks faster than she does.)



Modal helping verbs (10 verbs):
We use modal helping verbs to "modify" the meaning of the main verb in some way. A modal helping verb expresses necessity or possibility, and changes the main verb in that sense. These are the modal verbs:

can, could
may, might
will, would,
shall, should
must
ought to


Here are examples using modal verbs:

"I can't speak Chinese."
"John may arrive late."
"Would you like a cup of coffee?"
"You should see a doctor."
"I really must go now."



Semi-modal verbs (3 verbs)
The following verbs are often called "semi-modals" because they are partly like modal helping verbs and partly like main verbs:

need
dare
used to



http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verbs-what_classification-helping.htm
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Re: VERBS - Verb Classification

Post  Vincent Law on Wed Sep 26, 2012 5:53 am

VERBS - Main Verbs:
Main verbs are also called "lexical verbs".

Main verbs have meaning on their own (unlike helping verbs). There are thousands of main verbs, and we can classify them in several ways:

Transitive and intransitive verbs:
A transitive verb takes a direct object: Somebody killed the President. An intransitive verb does not have a direct object: He died. Many verbs, like speak, can be transitive or intransitive. Look at these examples:

- Transitive:
"I saw an elephant."
"We are watching TV."
"He speaks English."


- Intransitive
:
"He has arrived."
"John goes to school."
"She speaks fast."



Linking verbs:
A linking verb does not have much meaning in itself. It "links" the subject to what is said about the subject. Usually, a linking verb shows equality (=) or a change to a different state or place (>). Linking verbs are always intransitive (but not all intransitive verbs are linking verbs).

"Mary is a teacher." (mary = teacher)
"Tara is beautiful." (tara = beautiful)
"That sounds interesting." (that = interesting)
"The sky became dark." (the sky > dark)
"The bread has gone bad." (bread > bad)

Dynamic and stative verbs:
Some verbs describe action. They are called "dynamic", and can be used with continuous tenses. Other verbs describe state (non-action, a situation). They are called "stative", and cannot normally be used with continuous tenses (though some of them can be used with continuous tenses with a change in meaning).

- Dynamic verbs (examples):
hit, explode, fight, run, go

- Stative verbs (examples):
be
like, love, prefer, wish
impress, please, surprise
hear, see, sound
belong to, consist of, contain, include, need
appear, resemble, seem



Regular and irregular verbs:
This is more a question of vocabulary than of grammar. The only real difference between regular and irregular verbs is that they have different endings for their past tense and past participle forms. For regular verbs, the past tense ending and past participle ending is always the same: -ed. For irregular verbs, the past tense ending and the past participle ending is variable, so it is necessary to learn them by heart.

- Regular verbs:
base, past tense, past participle
look, looked, looked
work, worked, worked


- Irregular verbs: base, past tense, past participle:
buy, bought, bought
cut, cut, cut
do, did, done


Here are lists of regular verbs and irregular verbs.
One way to think of regular and irregular verbs is like this: all verbs are irregular and the so-called regular verbs are simply one very large group of irregular verbs.

Often the above divisions can be mixed. For example, one verb could be irregular, transitive and dynamic; another verb could be regular, transitive and stative.


http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verbs-what_classification-main.htm
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